Fundamental Obligations of Government:
- The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be a State based on the principles of democracy and social justice.
- It is hereby, accordingly declared that :(a) sovereignty belongs to the people of Nigeria from whom government through this Constitution derives all its powers and authority;(b) the security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government;(c) the participation by the people in their government shall be ensured in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
- The composition of the Government of the Federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such manner as to reflect the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few States or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that government or in any of its agencies.
- The composition of the Government of a State, a local government council, or any of the agencies of such government or council, and the conduct of the affairs of the government or council or such agencies shall be carried out in such manner as to recognize the diversity of the peoples within its area of authority and the need to promote a sense of belonging and loyalty among all the peoples of the Federation.
- The motto of the Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress.
- Accordingly, national integration shall be actively encouraged, whilst discrimination on the grounds of place of origin, sex, religion, status, ethnic or linguistic association or ties shall be prohibited.
- For the purpose of promoting national integration it shall be the duty of the State to:(a) provide adequate facilities for and encourage free mobility of people, goods and services throughout the Federation;(b) secure full residence rights for every citizen in all parts of the Federation;c) encourage intermarriage among persons from different places of origin, or of different religious, ethnic or linguistic association or ties;(d) and promote or encourage the formation of associations that cut across ethnic, linguistic, religious or other sectional barriers.
- The State shall foster a feeling of belonging and of involvement among the various peoples of the Federation, to the end that loyalty to the nation shall override sectional loyalties.
- The State shall abolish all corrupt practices and abuse of power. Economic Objectives
(a) control the national economy in such manner as to secure the maximum welfare, freedom and happiness of every citizen on the basis of social justice and equality of status and opportunity;
(c) without prejudice to the right of any person to participate in areas of the economy within the major sector of the economy, protect the right of every citizen to engage in any economic activities outside the major sector of the economy.
(2) The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring:
(a) the promotion of a planned and balanced economic development; (b) that the material resources of the community are harnessed and distributed as best as possible to serve the common good; (c) that the economic system is not operated in such a manner as to permit the concentration of wealth of the means of production and exchange in the hands of few individuals or of a group; and (d) that suitable and adequate shelter, suitable and adequate food, reasonable national minimum living wage, old age care and pensions, and unemployment and sick benefits are provided for all citizens.
(3) A body shall be set up by an Act of the National Assembly which shall have power:
(a) to review from time to time the ownership and control of business enterprises operating in Nigeria and make recommendations to the President on the same; and
(b) to administer any law for the regulation of the ownership and control of such enterprises.
(4) For the purpose of this subsection (1) of this section:
(a) reference to the major sectors of the economy “shall be construed as a reference to such economic activities as may from time to time be declared by a resolution of each House of the National Assembly to be managed and operated exclusively by the Government of the Federation; and until a resolution to the contrary is made by the National Assembly economic activities being operated exclusively by the Government of the Federation on the date immediately preceding the day when this sections come into force, whether directly or through the agencies of a statutory or other corporation of company shall be deemed to be major sectors of the economy; (b) “economic activities” includes activities directly concerned with the production, distribution and exchange of wealth or of goods and services; and
(c) “participate” includes the rendering of services and supplying of goods.
- The State social order is founded on ideals of Freedom, Equality and Justice.
- In furtherance of the social order:(a) every citizen shall have equality of rights, obligations and opportunities before the law;(b) the sanctity of the human person shall be recognised and human dignity shall be maintained and enhanced;(c) governmental actions shall be humane;d) exploitation of human or natural resources in any form whatsoever for reasons other than the good of the community shall be prevented; and(e) the independence, impartiality and integrity of courts of law, and easy accessibility thereto shall be secured and maintained.
- The State shall direct is policy towards ensuring that:(a) all citizens without discrimination on any ground whatsoever have the opportunity for securing adequate means of livelihood as well as adequate opportunities to secure suitable employment;(b) conditions of work are just and humane, and that there are adequate facilities for leisure and for social, religious and cultural life; (c) the health, safety and welfare of all persons in employment are safeguarded and not endangered or abused;(d) there are adequate medical and health facilities for all persons; (e) there is equal pay for equal work without discrimination on account of sex, or on any other ground whatsoever;(f) children, young persons and the aged are protected against any exploitation whatsoever, and against moral and material neglect; and (g) provision is made for public assistance in deserving cases or other conditions of need.
- Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels.
- Government shall promote science and technology.
- Government shall strive to eradicate illiteracy; and to this endGovernment shall as and when practicable provide:(a) free, compulsory and universal primary education;(b) free secondary education;(c) free university education; and(d) free adult literacy programme.
Foreign Policy Objectives
The State shall promote African Unity, as well as total political, economic, social and cultural liberation of African and all other forms of international cooperation conducive to the consolidation of universal peace and mutual respect and friendship among all peoples and States, and shall combat racial discrimination in all its manifestations.
Directive on Nigerian Culture:
Section 20 of the 1979 and 21 of the 1999 Constitution are similar. They provide as follows:
The State shall protect and enhance Nigerian culture.
Obligations of the Mass Media
The obligations of the mass media are prescribed in Section 21 (1979) and 22 (1999). The press, radio, television and other agencies of the mass media shall at all times be free to uphold the fundamental objectives contained in this Chapter and uphold the responsibility and accountability of the Government to the people.
The National ethic shall be Discipline, Self-reliance and Patriotism. See section 22 (1979) and 23 (1999).
In this unit, we have attempted to examine the various categories of the fundamental objectives and directive principle of state policy. The meaning and definition of each category, the relationship between the economic, political, social, educational and foreign affairs objectives were also examined.
We have been able to establish how the various categories of chapter II of the Constitution (1979 – 99) evolved and interrelate. We concluded with the views of Prof. Abiola Ojo that most, if not all,