- Father is the head of the home while the headmaster, principal and vice principal and chancellors are the heads of educational institutions
- An elderly man in a clan is the head
- In villages a particular family is selected to be the ruling family and from where chiefs are appointed, these chiefs are called various names in different part of Nigeria, oni of ife, alaf in oyo, emir in the north, obi of Onitsha, igwe of owerri, eze of arochukwu, chafia and abiriba, oba of benin, obong of calabar, amanyanabo ofopobo
- Local or urban council, the head is a political appointment, local council areas are headed by a divisional officers/chairman while in urban council area a resident is the head, Nigeria is a country of many states, the headship is also a political appointment like any other country, during civilian regime, a country is headed by a president or a prime minister chosen after constitutional election. During a military regime the commander in chief of the armed forces is appointed the head of state.
Maintenance of rules and regulations
In all these sectors, the families, clans, villages, local and urban councils and countries, measures are taken to maintain rules and regulation.
In families, the home and the school punishments are used for different offences, such punishments include- isolations, loss of privilege, corporal punishment, abuse etc.
In clans and village sanctions are employed, which is a penalty employed to restore law, such sanctions started right from the advent of Christianity. In some areas twins and their mother were tabooed or killed. Pawns (OSU) in Igbo were also isolated to refuse marriage. The use of sanctions is continuing until the present time.
Certain group of people or family who fall below the nums and values of the society are refused community farm lands or are refused admission in the respect age grades.
In local and urban council levels, states and central government, law enforcement agencies are employed. These agencies include police, the price control board, court messengers and the court of law and the prisons.
Problem of living together and what makes living together peaceful
The group activities of man has created many social problems, for example, population growth, diseases and population, about two-thirds of the words population are estimated to live in extreme poverty resulting in hunger, diseases and early death, apart from these quarrel, disputes, stealing, poisoning, bribery and corruption and even murder are other problems arising from living together. Living together has also given rise to discrimination or class distinction. This had affected education and job opportunities. It has led to nepotism.
For people to live in harmony and peacefully certain ethics must have to be observed which includes understanding individual differences, people differ in many respects, while some are physically handicapped, other are mentally disturbed, therefore, for peaceful living one must have to tolerate these difference’s, secondly there should depend on the willingness of each other’s to do his best as man shall not live by himself alone but in others he find his own. To do this effectively they must have to be progressive rather than conservative
Finally, patriotism and loyalty makes living together peaceful, to be patriotic, one must have to care for others good will and not being carefree, he must have to be loyal and obedient to the law of the country. He must not rig election and must have to vote during elections. A patriot must not join in the overthrow of his country. He should seek for the unity and stability of the country. He should not cause artificial scarcity through hoarding and inflation. A patriot should report cases of epidemics.