- Top management or Executive: These are decisions leading to ends rather than means. Decisions taken at this level are directed towards the attainment of the goals of the organization. Goals are statements that describe desired future conditions worthy of organizational effort and commitment. Goals consist of the following attributes: i. They reflect an organization’s basic purposes ii. They focus on results, not just the performance of the task. iii. They call for a major commitment of human and material resources for their attainment.
- Middle level management: This breaks the broad goals into specific ends or objectives. While goals are broad in character and describe desired future conditions, objectives are more specific and spell out actions to be carried out towards goals attainment.
- The operatives or rank and file: They are concerned with making decisions that effectively implement the policy directives received from the above. The immediate action to achieve the objectives is taken at the lower level. For example, in the University System, the lecturers are regarded as the operatives because they direct teaching and research which lead to the production of high level manpower (University Graduates). If wrong decision is made at the level of the operatives, the entire goal of the organization will flop. Consequently, decision at this level of delegation of duty is, as a matter of course, very important In addition to the above types of decision making, other types of decision making include:
- Group Decision Making: this ensures efficient and effective utilization of people within the organization and its environs, to make use of their intellectual abilities for the growth of the organization. Decisions are expected to be made in a social environment where each participant contributes his ideas towards the realization of the set objectives. No idea is useless no matter how stupid it sounds. Group decision calls for varied views which when properly articulate, lead to improved decision.
- Committee Decision: This is a form of group decision that is increasingly being used as effective administrative process. Committees are formed for various reasons:
i. Sometimes, large deliberative, legislative, executive and administrative bodies may have a variety of business to attend to and therefore lack the time and conducive atmosphere to effectively investigate and discuss in appropriate details the matters before them. Committees are then set up to attend to some of the issues.
ii. Technical issues that require the knowledge / expertise of a special category of persons demand the information of committees.
iii. The use of committees is a form of delegation of authority in administration which makes the detailed and thorough handling of different aspects of an organization’s activities possible. They may be standing (permanent) or ad hoc (temporary)
Self – Assessment Exercise 3.4
Discuss decision making process in Nigerian Public Administration
The practical issues in public administration in Nigeria have been explained here. It is important to note that public administration has peculiarities upon which it operates. The nature of public administration in any society depends to a large extent on its background and mode of decision making.
Areas covered in this unit include: Historical Development of Public Administration in Nigeria, Provisions of Public Service Review Commission, Structures of Public Administration, and Decision Making Process in Nigerian Public Service.
6.0 TUTOR – MARKED ASSIGNMENTS
- Discuss three reasons why committees are formed for purposes of decision making.
- Explain four (4) historical events in Nigerian Public Service
- Describe the structures of Decision – making in Nigeria.